Abd al-Hamid al-Ansari
Attempts to diagnose the factors contributing to paralysis and obstacles to Arab reform date back more than two centuries. They began at the end of the 18th century on the heels of the cultural clash with a triumphant West that overran the region with its developed weaponry and modern technologies, with its sciences, expertise and advanced systems.
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Turkey Aims to Restore the Ottoman Empire
Introduction: Kemalism and Atatürk
By the time World War I broke out, the Ottoman Empire had lost all the territories it had held in North Africa and almost all its territories in Europe, earning the nickname “sick man of Europe”. Turkey had been in the throes of a long-term crisis. Entering the conflict made the situation several times worse—the war completely ravaged the Ottoman Empire, dealing it a final blow. The empire lost the war and was in deep crisis. The Treaty of Sèvres, signed in 1920, decided the essential partitioning of Turkey. Under its terms, Greece would receive almost all of Turkey’s territories in Europe and some in Asia Minor; Syria and Lebanon would fall under the mandate of France; Iraq would be controlled by Great Britain; Turkey had to recognise Armenia as an independent state; and an independent Kurdish state was to be created. The treaty included many other conditions shameful to Turkish pride, and much that Turkey had to give up (including money and control over the Bosphorus straits).
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All nations and peoples in the world, without exception, pass through phases of cultural regression caused by specific historical factors and conditions. In some societies these phases may continue for a number of centuries, whilst other societies are able to shake off their stumbling and keep up with the train of progress within shorter periods of time. Read more about Babikir Faysal Babikir: Cultural Coma …